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ANIMAL YOGA FOR CHILDREN FOR PARENT’S HANDBOOK
  • Physical Milestones
    • 0-4 months: 50-300 ml/day urine production
    • 0-7 years: PMI (point of maximum impulse of heart) located at 3rd or 4th intercostal space, just left of midclavicular line
    • 0-2 years: respiration rate 24 to 34 respirations per minute
    • 0-1 years: pulse rate 135 ± 3.1
    • 0-1 years: blood pressure 90 ± 25 systolic, 61 ± 19 diastolic
    • 0-1 years: pulse 70-180, respiration 30-40
    • 0-1 years: temperature : 99.6F rectal, 98.6F oral, 97.4F axillary
    • 0-1 years: PaO2 85-100, PaCO2 35-45
    • 0-15 months: eliminates urine & feces automatically; may need up to 30 diapers a day as newborn
    • 0-2 1/2 years: naps easily
    • 2 months: weight gain between 1 lb. 4 oz. and 1 lb. 12 oz.
    • 2 months: height gain of 2 inches
    • 2 months: a 1-inch increase of head circumference
    • 2 months: closure of posterior fontanel
    • 2 months: doll’s eye reflex, dance reflex, crawling reflex, and walking reflex disappearing. Rooting reflex weakens.
      • Doll’s eye reflex: when the infant’s head is slowly turned, the infant’s eyes will remain stationary.
      • Crawling reflex: The infant will make crawling motions when placed on abdomen.
      • Walking reflex: when held upright and moved forward, with the soles of feet touching a surface, the infant will make a walking movement.
      • Rooting reflex: If the cheek is stroked the infant will turn toward the side that was stroked and begin to make sucking motions with its mouth.
    • 2 months: hands are frequently open
    • 2 months: less head lag
    • 2 months: when on stomach, able to lift head almost 45 degrees
    • 2 months: decreased flexion of extremities while on stomach
    • 3 months: hand grasp reflex disappears
      • Hand grasp reflex: The infant will try to grasp a finger placed in the infant’s open palm. Attempting to remove the finger causes the grip to tighten.
    • 4 months: the average child should weigh 14 lb. height 25 in. (weight gain between 2 lb. 8 oz. and 3 lb. 8 oz. and a height gain of 4 inches from 2 months)
    • 4 months – 2 years: 350-550 ml/day urine production
    • 4 months: a 2 inch increase of head circumference from 2 month old size
    • 4 months: Moro reflex, tonic reflex, and Perez reflex disappearing.
      • Moro reflex: If the infant’s body is lifted slightly and released suddenly. The infant should have a “startled” look, and fling it’s arms out sideways with the palms up and the thumbs flexed.
      • Asymmetric tonic reflex or fencer’s position: The tonic neck reflex is elicited when the head of a relaxed child, lying supine, is rotated to the side. The arm toward which the infant is facing extends straight away from the body with the hand partially open while the arm on the side away from the face is flexed and the fist is clenched tightly. Reversing the direction in which the face is turned reverses the position.
      • Perez reflex: If stroked along the spine from tail to head, baby will raise his or her head, possibly crying and wetting as well.
    • 4 months: almost no head lag while in a sitting position
    • 4 months: able to sit straight up if propped
    • 4 months: able to raise head 90 degrees when placed on stomach
    • 4 months: able to roll from back to one side
    • 4 months: tries to reach objects with hands, but commonly overshoots
    • 4 months: plays with rattle when placed in hands, but unable to pick it up if dropped
    • 4 months: grasps rattle with both hands
    • 4 months: able to place objects in mouth
    • 5 months: Rooting reflex disappears.
    • 5-9 months: lower central incisors (2) [deciduous]
    • 6 months: accommodation (pupil dilation for distant objects) present
    • 6 months: the average child should weigh 18 lb. height 26 1/2 in.
    • 6 months: should have doubled birth weight
    • 6 months: height gain of 6 inches
    • 6 months: a 3-inch increase of head circumference
    • 6 months: able to lift chest and head while on stomach bearing the weight on hand
    • 6 months: able to sit in a high chair with a straight back
    • 6 months: beginning of teething
    • 6 months: increased drooling
    • 6 months: beginning of Landau reflex
      • Landau reflex: when an infant is held in the prone position, the entire body forms a convex upward arc; gentle pressure on the head or gravity flexes the neck and hip, reversing the arc.
    • 6 months: able to bear almost all weight when supported in a standing position
    • 6 months: able to roll from back onto abdomen
    • 6 months: able to hold own bottle
    • 6 months: able to pick up a dropped object
    • 6-12 months: sleeps 10-12 hours per night & 20min. to 3 hours daytime naps
    • 7 months: Sucking reflex disappears.
      • Sucking reflex: when finger or nipple placed if placed in the infant’s mouth, the infant will suck.
    • 8 months: the average child should weigh 20 lb. height 27 in.
    • 8-12 months: upper central incisors (2) [deciduous]
    • 8-12 months: sit up strongly without support
    • 8-12 months: crawls and pulls himself up
    • 8-12 months: begin to use one hand more than the other
    • 8-12 months: begin chopped foods
    • 8-12 months: make sounds like da-da and ma-ma
    • 8-12 months: Foot withdrawal disappears.
      • Foot withdrawal: when the infant’s foot is lightly pricked with a pin, the foot withdraws with leg flexation.
    • 9 months: weight should increase by 2 lb. 4 oz. to 3 lb. 12 oz.
    • 9 months: height gain of 1 ½ inches since 6 months: old
    • 9 months: bowel and bladder systems become more regulated
    • 9 months: parachute reflex appears
      • Parachute reflex: If the child is held upright and the body is rotated quickly face forward as if falling. The arms are reflexively extended as if to break a fall to protect self from falling.
    • 9 months: crawls
    • 9 months: can remain sitting for prolonged periods
    • 9 months: may pull self to standing position
    • 9 months: begins preference for dominant hand
    • 9 months: has a pincer grasp between thumb and index finger
    • 9-12 months: plantar reflex disappears
      • Plantar reflex: If the sole of the foot is irritated with an object, the infant’s toes will contract.
    • 9-12 months: neck righting reflex disappears
      • Neck righting reflex: The infant will rotate the truck in the direction in which the head of the supine infant is turned.
    • 10 months: the average child should weigh 22 lb. height 29 in.
    • 10-12 months: upper lateral incisors (2) [deciduous]
  • Sensory and Cognitive Milestones
    • 2 months: searches to locate sounds
    • 2 months: head turns from side to side with auditory stimulation at the level of the ear
    • 2 months: beginning to visually fix on close objects
    • 2 months: crying becomes differentiated
    • 2 months: coos
    • 2 months: vocal response to familiar voices
    • 2 months: smiles in response to stimuli
    • 4 months: close vision well established
    • 4 months: eye-hand coordination beginning
    • 4 months: can make the consonant sounds: n, k, p, g, b
    • 4 months: laughs out loud
    • 4 months: anticipates feeding when able to see a bottle (if bottle-fed)
    • 4 months: begins to show memory
    • 4 months: demands attention by fussing
    • 6 months: vision has improved to between 20/60 and 20/40
    • 6 months: can localize sounds not made in a direct plane with the ear
    • 6 months: prefers more complex auditory stimulation
    • 6 months: starts to imitate sounds
    • 6 months: sounds resemble one-syllable words
    • 6 months: enjoys hearing own voice
    • 6 months: makes sounds to mirror and toys
    • 6 months: begins to fear strangers
    • 6 months: recognizes parents
    • 6 months: begins to imitate actions
    • 6 months: begins to realize that if an object is dropped it is still there and just needs to be picked up
    • 9 months: development of depth perception
    • 9 months: can respond to simple commands
    • 9 months: understands the meaning of no
    • 9 months: may be afraid of being left alone
  • Language Milestones
    • Imitates familiar words
    • Recognizes words as symbols for objects: Car – points to garage, cat – meows
    • 7-8 months: Responds to own name.
    • 8-12 months: Polysyllabic babbling.
  • 12 months: Understands simple instructions
  • Social/Behavioral Milestones
    • 0-1 month Indefinite gaze at surroundings. Listens to sounds. Watches Mother’s face when she feeds or talks to him.
    • 3-4 months: Spontaneous smile. Brings hands together and watches them. Pulls clothes over face when he plays. Recognizes feeding bottle. Shows preference for primary caregiver
    • 5-6 months: Puts everything in mouth. Plays with toes and grasps feet. Pats bottle with both hands when being fed. Smiles or talks to image in mirror.
    • 7-8 months: Pats image of self in mirror. Feeds self cracker. Holds bottle.
    • 9-10 months: Plays peekaboo. Puts hands around cup. Shows shyness, fear of strangers, and clings to familiar persons. May not want to be left by mother.
    • 12 months: Waves good-bye. Cooperative with dress. Holds arm or leg out. Gives toys upon request. Drinks from cup without help.

Between One and Two

  • Physical Milestones
    • 1-2 years: pulse rate 105 ± 1.8
    • 1-2 year blood pressure 96 ± 27 systolic, 65 ± 27 diastolic
    • 1-2 year pulse 80-140, respiration 28-32
    • 1-2 year temperature : 99.6F rectal, 98.6F oral, 97.4F axillary
    • 1-2 year PaO2 85-100, PaCO2 35-45
    • 12 months: the average child should weigh 23 lb. height 30 in.
    • 12 months: weight should have tripled since birth and height should have increased by 50% over birth length
    • 12 months: the head circumference should equal that of the chest
    • 12 months: the anterior fontanelle (the front soft spot on the head) should be almost closed
    • 12 months: the average child should have 6 teeth; lower lateral incisors (2) [deciduous] & anterior molars (4) [deciduous]
    • 12-18 months: Babinski sign disappears
      • Babinski sign: When the lateral aspect of the sole of the relaxed foot is stroked, the great toe is flexed.
    • 12 months – 2 1/2 years: sleeps 10-12 hours night
    • 12 months: needs 6-8 diapers a day minimum
    • 12 months: may recognize when he has wet or soiled himself
    • 12 months: may walk a wide-legged gait, but may prefer crawling
    • 12 months: may walk with the support of one hand
    • 12 months: may stack blocks and try to build a tower out of two blocks, or bang them together
    • 12 months: points with index finger, uses pincer grasp
    • 12 months: turns through pages of a book by flipping many at a time
    • 12 months: can sit down without help
    • 12 months: may get to a standing position from a squat, pivot a quarter of the way around, and lower himself to a sitting position
    • 12 months: may become a very picky eater, and become more negative, especially at meals and naptime
    • 12 months: may give attention to people and objects
    • 12 months: may have renewed fear of strangers and strange situations
    • 12-15 months: walk alone or with a little help
    • 12-15 months: lower himself from a standing to a sitting position
    • 12-15 months: holds a cup to drink from
    • 12-18 months: learns bowel control
    • 12-24 months: voids urine 8+ times a day
    • 12-24 months: Landau reflex disappears
    • 14 months: the average child should weigh 24 lb. height 31 in.
    • 15-18 months: show a little cooperation at being dressed
    • 15-18 months: walk alone
    • 15-18 months: use a spoon
    • 15-18 months: build a tower of two blocks and fit a peg into its proper hole
    • 18 months: fontanelle closes
    • 18 months: the average child should have 12 teeth
    • 18 months: the average child should weigh 26 lb. height 32 1/2 in.
    • 18 months: growth slows
    • 18 months: the child is physically able to control sphincter muscles, but the child may not be psychologically ready to use the toilet
    • 18 months: there are usually two bowel movements per day; after breakfast and after supper, there may be a third in the midmorning standing at the side of the crib or playpen
    • 18 months: able to run with a lack of coordination
    • 18 months: falls frequently
    • 18 months: able to jump in place
    • 18 months: able to climb into chairs without assistance, climbs stairs
    • 18 months: can build a tower of 3 to 4 blocks
    • 18 months: can turn the pages of a book two or three at a time
    • 18 months: abdomen protrudes, arms and legs lengthen
    • 18 months: fine muscle coordination begins to develop
    • 18 months: big muscles become well developed
    • 18 months: carries toys while walking, can walk backwards
    • 18-24 months: urinates every 2-3 hours
    • 18-24 months: canines (4) [deciduous]
    • 18-24 months: good control with a spoon
    • 18-24 months: throw a ball into a box
    • 18-24 months: build a high tower with blocks
    • 18-24 months: may start toilet training
  • Sensory and Cognitive Milestones
    • 12 months: follows a fast moving object
    • 12 months: has control over response to sounds
    • 12 months: searches for objects that are hidden, but unable to consider alternative locations
    • 12 months: may develop attachment to a toy or object
    • 12 months: experiences separation anxiety and may cling to parents
    • 12 months: may make brief exploratory journeys away from parents in familiar settings
    • 18 months: understands and able to identify through pointing common objects
    • 18 months: frequently imitates
    • 18 months: able to take off some clothing items; gloves, shoes & socks
    • 18 months: begins to feel a sense of ownership identifying people and objects by saying “my”
  • Language Milestones
    • 12 months: understands several words and simple commands
    • 12 months: tries to imitate animal sounds
    • 12 months: associates names with objects
    • 12-15 months: uses a few words, such as ‘mamma’ and ‘papa’
    • 12-15 months: combines two words such as “daddy bye-bye”
    • 18 months: uses 6-20 words, understands up to 50
    • 18 months: uses words such as “more” to make wants known
    • 18 months: jabbers continually
    • 18-24 months: says short sentences
    • 24 months: joins in nursery rhymes
  • Social/Behavioral Milestones
    • 12 months: Waves good-bye and plays pat-a-cake
    • 12 months: Gives a toy when asked
    • 12 months: Points to his or her toes, eyes, and nose
    • 12 months: Brings object from another room when asked
    • 15 months: Feeds self. Uses a spoon, but is messy. Imitates Mother in household duties.
    • 18 months: Drinks without much spilling. Takes off clothes.
    • 2 years: Constantly demanding caregiver’s attention.
    • 2 years: Rebellious, tantrums

Between Two and Three

  • Physical Milestones
    • 2-12 1/2 years: respiration rate 20 to 26 respirations per minute
    • 2-3 years: pulse rate 93 ± 1.0
    • 2-3 year blood pressure 95 ± 24 systolic, 61 ± 24 diastolic
    • 2-3 year pulse 80-140, respiration 28-32
    • 2-3 year temperature : 99.6F rectal, 98.6F oral, 97.4F axillary
    • 2-3 year PaO2 85-100, PaCO2 35-45
    • 2-3 1/2 years: learns bladder control
    • 24 months: the average child should have 16 teeth
    • 24 months: the average child should weigh 28 lb. height 34 1/2 in.
    • 2 years: average female weight 26.4 lb. height 34 in.
    • 2 years: average male weight 28.6 lb. height 34 in.
    • 2 years: the circumference of the head should have increased to about 20 inches
    • 2 years: the circumference of the growing chest should be larger than that of the head
    • 2 years: the height is roughly half the total height the child will attain as an adult
    • 2 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 37%, calf 42%, foot 52%, upperarm 40%, forearm 47%, hand 54%
    • 2 years: protruding abdomen less noticeable
    • 2 years: may be psychologically ready for toilet training
    • 2 years: may be bowel trained and may have daytime bladder control
    • 2 years: can run with better coordination, while the stance may remain wide
    • 2 years: can kick ball without loosing balance
    • 2 years: can pick up objects while standing without losing balance
    • 2 years: can build a tower of several cubes
    • 2 years: can browse through a book one page at a time
    • 2 years: able to turn a door knob
    • 24-30 months: posterior molars (4) [deciduous]
    • 2 1/2 years: the average child should have 20 teeth
    • 30 months: the average child should weigh 32 lb. height 36 in.
    • 2 1/2 years: average female weight 28.6 lb. height 351/2 in.
    • 2 1/2 years: average male weight 30.8 lb. height 35 1/2 in.
    • 2 1/2 years: has full set of baby teeth
    • 2-3 years: Lordosis and protuberant abdomen of toddler disappear
    • 2-10 years: 500-1000 ml/day urine production
  • Sensory and Cognitive Milestones
    • vision fully developed
    • vocabulary has increased to about 300 words
    • can organize phrases of 2 to 3 words
    • able to communicate needs such as thirst, hunger, need to use the restroom
    • increased attention span
    • able to clothe self in simple apparel
  • Language Milestones
    • Identifies body parts
    • Carries on ‘conversation’ with self and dolls
    • Asks “what’s that?” And “where’s my?”
    • Uses 2-word negative phrases such as “no want”.
    • Forms some plurals by adding “s”; book, books
    • Has a 450 word vocabulary
    • Gives first name, holds up fingers to tell age
    • Combines nouns and verbs “mommy go”
    • Understands simple time concepts: “last night”, “tomorrow”
    • Refers to self as “me” rather than by name
    • Tries to get adult attention: “watch me”
    • Likes to hear same story repeated
    • May say “no” when means “yes”
    • Talks to other children as well as adults
    • Solves problems by talking instead of hitting or crying
    • Answers “where” questions, uses prepositions
    • Names common pictures and things
    • Uses short sentences like “me want more” or “me want cookie”
    • Matches 3-4 colors, knows big and little
    • still many infantile phonetic substitutions. Can pronounce m,n, ng, f, p, h, w.
  • Social/Behavioral Milestones
    • 2 years: Helps dress self. Less messy when eating. Turns down handle and opens door. Washes and dries hands.
    • 2 ½ years: Helps put things away. Domestic make believe play. Toilet trained during the day.

 

Between Two and Three

  • Physical Milestones
    • 2-12 1/2 years: respiration rate 20 to 26 respirations per minute
    • 2-3 years: pulse rate 93 ± 1.0
    • 2-3 year blood pressure 95 ± 24 systolic, 61 ± 24 diastolic
    • 2-3 year pulse 80-140, respiration 28-32
    • 2-3 year temperature : 99.6F rectal, 98.6F oral, 97.4F axillary
    • 2-3 year PaO2 85-100, PaCO2 35-45
    • 2-3 1/2 years: learns bladder control
    • 24 months: the average child should have 16 teeth
    • 24 months: the average child should weigh 28 lb. height 34 1/2 in.
    • 2 years: average female weight 26.4 lb. height 34 in.
    • 2 years: average male weight 28.6 lb. height 34 in.
    • 2 years: the circumference of the head should have increased to about 20 inches
    • 2 years: the circumference of the growing chest should be larger than that of the head
    • 2 years: the height is roughly half the total height the child will attain as an adult
    • 2 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 37%, calf 42%, foot 52%, upperarm 40%, forearm 47%, hand 54%
    • 2 years: protruding abdomen less noticeable
    • 2 years: may be psychologically ready for toilet training
    • 2 years: may be bowel trained and may have daytime bladder control
    • 2 years: can run with better coordination, while the stance may remain wide
    • 2 years: can kick ball without loosing balance
    • 2 years: can pick up objects while standing without losing balance
    • 2 years: can build a tower of several cubes
    • 2 years: can browse through a book one page at a time
    • 2 years: able to turn a door knob
    • 24-30 months: posterior molars (4) [deciduous]
    • 2 1/2 years: the average child should have 20 teeth
    • 30 months: the average child should weigh 32 lb. height 36 in.
    • 2 1/2 years: average female weight 28.6 lb. height 351/2 in.
    • 2 1/2 years: average male weight 30.8 lb. height 35 1/2 in.
    • 2 1/2 years: has full set of baby teeth
    • 2-3 years: Lordosis and protuberant abdomen of toddler disappear
    • 2-10 years: 500-1000 ml/day urine production
  • Sensory and Cognitive Milestones
    • vision fully developed
    • vocabulary has increased to about 300 words
    • can organize phrases of 2 to 3 words
    • able to communicate needs such as thirst, hunger, need to use the restroom
    • increased attention span
    • able to clothe self in simple apparel
  • Language Milestones
    • Identifies body parts
    • Carries on ‘conversation’ with self and dolls
    • Asks “what’s that?” And “where’s my?”
    • Uses 2-word negative phrases such as “no want”.
    • Forms some plurals by adding “s”; book, books
    • Has a 450 word vocabulary
    • Gives first name, holds up fingers to tell age
    • Combines nouns and verbs “mommy go”
    • Understands simple time concepts: “last night”, “tomorrow”
    • Refers to self as “me” rather than by name
    • Tries to get adult attention: “watch me”
    • Likes to hear same story repeated
    • May say “no” when means “yes”
    • Talks to other children as well as adults
    • Solves problems by talking instead of hitting or crying
    • Answers “where” questions, uses prepositions
    • Names common pictures and things
    • Uses short sentences like “me want more” or “me want cookie”
    • Matches 3-4 colors, knows big and little
    • still many infantile phonetic substitutions. Can pronounce m,n, ng, f, p, h, w.
  • Social/Behavioral Milestones
    • 2 years: Helps dress self. Less messy when eating. Turns down handle and opens door. Washes and dries hands.
    • 2 ½ years: Helps put things away. Domestic make believe play. Toilet trained during the day.

Between Three and Four

  • Physical Milestones
    • 3-4 years: pulse rate 87 ± 0.7
    • 3-4 year blood pressure 99 ± 23 systolic, 65 ± 19 diastolic
    • 3-4 year pulse 80-120, respiration 24-28
    • 3-4 year temperature : 99.6F rectal, 98.6F oral, 97.4F axillary
    • 3-4 year PaO2 85-100, PaCO2 35-45
    • 3 years: the average child should weigh 33 lb. height 38 in.
    • 3 years: average female weight 30.8 lb. height 37 1/2 in.
    • 3 years: average male weight 33 lb. height 37 1/2 in.
    • 3 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 44%, calf 47%, foot 58%, upperarm 47%, forearm 52%, hand 56%
    • 3 years: during the 3rd year there is usually a weight gain of about 6 pounds
    • 3 years: during the 3rd year there is usually a height gain of about 3 inches
    • 3 years: should have daytime control over bowel and bladder functions and may have nighttime control as well
    • 3 years: may stay dry all night
    • 3 years: able to ride three wheel toys such as a tricycle or Big Wheel
    • 3 years: improved balance
    • 3 years: able to briefly balance on one foot
    • 3 years: may walk up the stairs with alternating feet
    • 3 years: can construct a block tower of 9 to 10 cubes
    • 3 years: can easily place small objects in a small opening
    • 3 1/2 years: the average child should weigh 35 lb. height 39 in.
    • 3 1/2 years: average female weight 33 lb. height 38 1/2 in.
    • 3 1/2 years: average male weight 35.2 lb. height 39 in.
  • Sensory and Cognitive Milestones
    • 3 years: able to completely clothe self, only requiring assistance with laces, buttons, and other fasteners in awkward places
    • 3 years: attention span increasing
    • 3 years: feeds self without difficulty
    • 3 years: able to prepare uncomplicated meals
    • 3 years: may experience an increase in imaginary fears
    • 3 years: realization of own self and that of others
    • 3 years: social encounters are acted out through play activities
    • 3 years: both thought and behavior are egocentric
    • 3 years: beginning to grasp the concept of time
    • 3 years: decrease in separation anxiety for short periods of time
  • Language Milestones
    • Can tell a story
    • Has a vocabulary of nearly 1000 words
    • Has a sentence length of 4-5 words
    • frequently asks questions
    • speech is nearly constant regardless of the presence of an audience
    • Names at least one color
    • Understands “yesterday,” “summer”, “lunchtime”, “tonight”, “little-big”
    • Begins to obey requests like “put the block under the chair”
    • Knows his or her last name, name of street on which he/she lives and several nursery rhymes
  • Social/Behavioral Milestones
    • 3 years: Feeds self well. Drinks with help. Puts on socks. Likes to help mother (set table & clean). Sometimes shares things.
    • 3 years: Separates from mother easily
    • 3 years: Able to defer gratification for a short period of time

Between Four and Five

  • Physical Milestones
    • 4-5 years: pulse rate 84 ± 0.7
    • 4 years: the average child should weigh 37 lb. height 40 1/2 in.
    • 4 years: average female weight 35.2 lb. height 40 in.
    • 4 years: average male weight 37.4 lb. height 40 1/2 in.
    • 4 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 48%, calf 53%, foot 62%, upperarm 54%, forearm 56%, hand 60%
    • 4 years: muscle width, arm + calf 8.2 cm
    • 4 years: weight gain of about 6 pounds during the 4th year
    • 4 years: the height should be double their length at birth
    • 4 years: improved balance, can walk heel-to-toe
    • 4 years: hops on one foot without losing balance
    • 4 years: throws a ball overhand with coordination
    • 4 years: skillfully cuts out a picture using scissors
    • 4 years: may not be able to tie shoelaces
    • 4 years: dry through night
    • 4-6 years: average child weighs 44 lb. height 44 in.
    • 4 1/2 years: the average child should weigh 39 lb. height 41 1/2 in.
    • 4 1/2 years: average female weight 37.4 lb. height 41 1/2 in.
    • 4 1/2 years: average male weight 39.6 lb. height 42 1/2 in.
  • Sensory and Cognitive Milestones
    • 4 years: tries to be very independent
    • 4 years: increased aggressive behavior
    • 4 years: readily discloses personal family matters to others
    • 4 years: imaginary playmates are common
    • 4 years: increased comprehension of time
    • 4 years: able to distinguish between two objects based on simple criteria (such as size, weight, and so forth)
    • 4 years: less egocentric behavior
    • 4 years: believes that their thought and emotions are causative events
    • 4 years: lack moral concept of right and wrong
    • 4 years: rebellion is common if expectations are excessive
  • Language Milestones
    • Has a vocabulary of nearly 1500 words
    • Has sentence length of 4-5 words
    • Uses past tense correctly
    • Points to colors red, blue, yellow and green
    • Identifies triangles, circles and squares
    • Understands “In the morning” , “next”, “noontime”
    • Can speak of imaginary conditions such as “I hope”
    • Asks many questions, asks “who?” And “why?”
    • The age when the child will ask the most questions
    • May use words outside their comprehension
    • May begin using vulgar terms depending on their exposure
    • Learns and sings simple songs
    • Counts to 10
  • Social/Behavioral Milestones
    • 4 years: Dresses self unassisted. Can button clothes. Washes and dries hands and brushes teeth unassisted. Understands taking turns.

Between Five and Six

  • Physical Milestones
    • 5-6 years: pulse rate 79 ± 0.6 and respiratory rate may decrease
    • 5 years: the average child should weigh 42 lb. height 43 in.
    • 5-9 years: early Lordosis disappears
    • 5-9 years: begins to lose baby teeth; first permanent teeth begin to erupt, permanent teeth then appear at a rate of 4 teeth per year from 7-14 years.
    • 5 years: average female weight 39.6 lb. height 42 1/2 in.
    • 5 years: average male weight 41.8 lb. height 43 1/2 in.
    • 5 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 54%, calf 57%, foot 66%, upperarm 57%, forearm 60%, hand 64%
    • 5 years: muscle width, arm + calf 8.5 cm
    • 5 years: increased coordination
    • 5 years: skips, jumps, and skates with good balance
    • 5 years: able to maintain balance while standing on one foot with eyes closed
    • 5 years: able to tie own shoelaces
    • 5 years: increased skill with simple tools and writing utensils
    • 5 1/2 years: average female weight 41.8 lb. height 44 in.
    • 5 1/2 years: average male weight 44 lb. height 44 1/2 in.
    • 6-7 years: pulse rate 76 ± 0.6
    • 6 years: average female weight 44 lb. height 45 1/2 in.
    • 6 years: average male weight 46.2 lb. height 45 1/2 in.
    • 6 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 58%, calf 62%, foot 70%, upperarm 62%, forearm 63%, hand 66%
    • 6 years: muscle width, arm + calf 8.8cm
    • 6-7 years: first molars (4) [permanent]
    • 6 1/2 years: average female weight 46.2 lb. height 46 1/2 in.
    • 6 1/2 years: average male weight 48.4 lb. height 47 in.
  • Sensory and Cognitive Milestones
    • 5 years: increasingly responsible
    • 5 years: decreased aggressiveness
    • 5 years: some fears from earlier childhood are disappearing
    • 5 years: able to accept the validity of others view and perspective, but may not understand it
    • 5 years: increased mathematical skill
    • 5 years: does not hesitate to question others, including parents
    • 5 years: there is a strong identification with the parent of the same sex
  • Language Milestones
    • Has a vocabulary of around 2000 words
    • Has a sentence length of 5-6 words
    • Defines objects by their use (you eat with a fork) and can tell what objects are made of
    • Knows spatial relations like “on top”, “behind”, “far” and “near”
    • Knows the names of the primary colors and may know the names of many more
    • Knows her address
    • Identifies a penny, nickel and dime
    • Knows common opposites like “big/little”
    • Understands “same” and “different”
    • Counts ten objects
    • Asks questions for information
    • Distinguished left and right hand in herself
    • Can compose sentences with all parts of speech
    • Questions are less superficial, addressing meaning and purpose
    • Uses all types of sentences, for example “let’s go to the store after we eat”
    • At six years: the vocabulary has increased to over 2100 words
    • At six years: readily composes sentences of 6 to 8 words
  • Social/Behavioral Milestones
    • Independent and self sufficient. Dresses and undresses self. Ties shoelaces. Uses knife and fork.
    • Chooses own friends, comforts friends in distress
    • Understands fair play
    • Tender and protective towards younger children

By Age Seven

  • Physical Milestones
    • 7 years: PMI located 5th or 6th left intercostal space at the midclavicular line or slightly medial to it
    • 7-8 years: pulse rate 75 ± 0.7
    • 7 years: average female weight 48.4 lb. height 47 1/2 in.
    • 7 years: average male weight 50.6 lb. height 48 1/2 in.
    • 7 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 63%, calf 65%, foot 73%, upperarm 66%, forearm 67%, hand 69%
    • 7 years: muscle width, arm + calf 9cm
    • 7-8 years: incisors (8) [permanent]
    • 7-10 years: average child weighs 62 lb. height 52 in.
    • 7 1/2 years: average female weight 52.8 lb. height 49 in.
    • 7 1/2 years: average male weight 52.8 lb. height 49 in.

By Age Eight

  • Physical Milestones
    • 8-9 years: pulse rate 73 ± 0.7
    • 8 years: average female weight 55 lb. height 50 in.
    • 8 years: average male weight 55 lb. height 50 in.
    • 8 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 66%, calf 70%, foot 76%, upperarm 69%,
    • forearm 70%, hand 72%
    • 8 years: muscle width, arm + calf 9.3cm
    • 8 1/2 years: average female weight 59.4 lb. height 50 1/2 in.
    • 8 1/2 years: average male weight 59.4 lb. height 51 in.

By Age Nine

  • Physical Milestones
    • 9-10 years: pulse rate 70 ± 0.6
    • 9 years: average female weight 63.8 lb. height 52 in.
    • 9 years: average male weight 61.6 lb. height 52 in.
    • 9 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 72%, calf 74%, foot 81%, upperarm 72%, forearm 73%, hand 75%
    • 9 years: muscle width, arm + calf 9.6cm
    • 9-10 years: bicuspids (8) [permanent]
    • 9-12 years: childish appearance of face disappears
    • 9 1/2 years: average female weight 68.2 lb. height 53 in.
    • 9 1/2 years: average male weight 66 lb. height 53 in.

By Age Ten

  • Physical Milestones
    • 10-11 years: pulse rate 67 ± 0.6
    • 10 years: average female weight 72.6 lb. height 54 1/2 in.
    • 10 years: average male weight 70.4 lb. height 54 in.
    • 10 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 75%, calf 79%, foot 84%, upperarm 77%, forearm 78%, hand 80%
    • 10 years: muscle width, arm + calf 10cm
    • 10 years: the size of testes 1.75ml
    • 10-14 years: (female) breast development
    • 10-14 years: (female) pubic hair appears
    • 10-16 years: (female) growth rate increase
    • 10 1/2 years: average female weight 77 lb. height 56 in.
    • 10 1/2 years: average male weight 74.8 lb. height 55 in.

By Age Eleven

  • Physical Milestones
    • 11-12 years: pulse rate 67 ± 0.6
    • 11 years: average female weight 81.4 lb. height 57 in.
    • 11 years: average male weight 77 lb. height 56 1/2 in.
    • 11 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 80%, calf 82%, foot 87%, upperarm 81%, forearm 81%, hand 82%
    • 11 years: muscle width, arm + calf 10.3cm
    • 11 years: the size of testes 2.5ml
    • 11-14 years: average female weight 101 lb. height 62 in.
    • 11-14 years: average male weight 99 lb. height 62 in.
    • 11-15 years: 700-1400 ml/day urine production
    • 11-16 years: (male) pubic hair appears
    • 11-17 years: (female) menstruation
    • 11-17 years: (male) testicle growth
    • 11 1/2 years: average female weight 85.8 lb. height 58 1/2 in.
    • 11 1/2 years: average male weight 83.6 lb. height 58 in.

By Age Twelve

  • Physical Milestones
    • 12-13 years: pulse rate 66 ± 0.6
    • 12 years: average female weight 92.4 lb. height 60 in.
    • 12 years: average male weight 88 lb. height 59 in.
    • 12 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 85%, calf 86%, foot 90%, upperarm 83%, forearm 84%, hand 85%
    • 12 years: muscle width, arm + calf 10.7cm
    • 12 years: the size of testes 4.0ml
    • 12-14 years: canines (4) [permanent]
    • 12-15 years: second molars (4) [permanent]
    • 12-16 years: underarm hair appears
    • 12-16 years: (male) penis growth
    • 12-18 years: (male) growth rate increase
    • 12 1/2 years: respiration rate 12 to 18 respirations per minute
    • 12 1/2 years: the forehead becomes more prominent (caused by the growth of brow ridges and air sinuses), both jaws grow forward(lower more than upper)
    • 12 1/2 years: aureola diameter doubles from 1/2in. to 1 in. in males, and triples in females to 1 1/2in.
    • 12 1/2 years: acceleration of penis growth
    • 12 1/2 years: average female weight 96.8 lb. height 61 in.
    • 12 1/2 years: average male weight 94.6 lb. height 60 in.

By Age Thirteen

  • Physical Milestones
    • 13-14 years: pulse rate 65 ± 0.8
    • 13 years: average female weight 101.2 lb. height 62 in.
    • 13 years: average male weight 99 lb. height 61 1/2 in.
    • 13 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 89%, calf 89%, foot 91%, upperarm 85%, forearm 86%, hand 87%
    • 13 years: muscle width, arm + calf 11.3cm
    • 13 years: the size of testes 7.2ml
    • 13-14 years: (male) enlargement of voicebox
    • 13–18 years: (male) underarm hair appears
    • 13 1/2 years: average female weight 105.6 lb. height 62 1/2 in.
    • 13 1/2 years: average male weight 105.6 lb. height 63 in.

By Age Fourteen

  • Physical Milestones
    • 14-15 years: pulse rate 62 ± 0.7
    • 14 years: average female weight 110 lb. height 63 in.
    • 14 years: average male weight 112.2 lb. height 64 in.
    • 14 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 92%, calf 92%, foot 94%, upperarm 91%, forearm 91%, hand 91%
    • 14 years: muscle width, arm + calf 12 cm
    • 14 years: the size of testes 11 ml
    • 14-17 years: (male) deepening of voice
    • 14 1/2 years: completion of penis growth
    • 14 1/2 years: average female weight 114.4 lb. height 63 1/2 in.
    • 14 1/2 years: average male weight 118.8 lb. height 65 1/2 in.

By Age Fifteen

  • Physical Milestones
    • 15 years: onward (male) 800-2000 ml/day urine production
    • 15 years: onward (female) 800-1600 ml/day urine production
    • 15-16 years: pulse rate 61 ± 0.9
    • 15 years: average female weight 118.8 lb. height 63 1/2 in.
    • 15 years: average male weight 125.4 lb. height 66 1/2 in.
    • 15 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 93%, calf 93%, foot 95%, upperarm 92%, forearm 92%, hand 93%
    • 15 years: muscle width, arm + calf 12.5 cm
    • 15 years: the size of testes 15ml
    • 15-18 years: average female weight 120 lb. height 64 in.
    • 15-18 years: average male weight 145 lb. height 69 in.
    • 15 1/2 years: average female weight 120 lb. height 64 in.
    • 15 1/2 years: average male weight 132 lb. height 67 1/2 in.

By Age Sixteen

  • Physical Milestones
    • 16-17 years: pulse rate 61 ± 0.9
    • 16 years: average female weight 120 lb. height 64 in.
    • 16 years: average male weight 136.4 lb. height 68 1/2 in.
    • 16 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 93%, calf 94%, foot 95%, upperarm 95%, forearm 95%, hand 95%
    • 16 years: muscle width, arm + calf 13.5 cm
    • 16 years: the size of testes 19ml
    • 16 1/2 years: average female weight 120 lb. height 64 in.
    • 16 1/2 years: average male weight 143 lb. height 69 in.

By Age Seventeen

  • Physical Milestones
    • 17-18 years: pulse rate 60 ± 1.4
    • 17 years: average female weight 120 lb. height 64 in.
    • 17 years: average male weight 147.4 lb. height 69 1/2 in.
    • 17 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 97%, calf 97%, foot 97%, upperarm 97%, forearm 97%, hand 97%
    • 17 years: muscle width, arm + calf 14.1 cm
    • 17 years: the size of testes 21 ml
    • 17-25 years: third molars (4) [permanent]
    • 17 1/2 years: average female weight 120 lb. height 64 in.
    • 17 1/2 years: average male weight 149.6 lb. height 70 in.

By Age Eighteen

  • Physical Milestones
    • 18 years: average female weight 120 lb. height 64 in.
    • 18 years: average male weight 151.8 lb. height 70 in.
    • 18 years: the percent of (male) adult value of thigh 100%, calf 100%, foot 100%, upperarm 100%, forearm 100%, hand 100%
    • 18 years: muscle width, arm + calf 14.4 cm
    • 18 years: the size of testes 21 ml

Above Age Eighteen

  • 19-22 years: average female weight 120 lb. height 64 in.
  • 19-22 years: average male weight 154 lb. height 70 in.
  • 23-50 years: average female weight 120 lb. height 64 in.
  • 23-50 years: average male weight 154 lb. height 70 in.
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