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The twelve Sun-Gods (12 Adityas) And Their Associates


The twelve Sun-Gods (12 Adityas) And Their Associates

(Srimad Bhagavatam 12.11.27-49) A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami prabhupada


 

Surya on Chariot

The 12 Adityas

Ruling Month

Solar Month

Lunar Month
1

Dhata

March - April

Madhu

Chaitra

2

Aryama

April - May

Madhava

Vaishakha

3

Mitra

May - June

Shukra

Jyeshtha

4

Varuna

June - July

Suchi

Ashadha

5

Indra

July - August

Nabhas

Shravana

6

Vivasvan

Aug - Sept

Nabhasya

Bhadrapada

7

Tvashtha

Sept - Oct

Isha

Ashvina

8

Vishnu

Oct - Nov

Urja

Karttika

9

Amshuman

Nov - Dec

Sahas

Margasirsha

10

Bhaga

Dec - Jan

Sahasya

Pushya

11

Pusha

Jan - Feb

Tapas

Magha

12

Parjanja

Feb - March

Tapasya

Phalguna

'

47-48. While the sages glorify the sun-god with the hymns of the Sama-, Rig- and Yajur Vedas, which reveal his identity, the Gandharvas also sing his praises and the Apsaras dance before his chariot. The Nagas arrange the chariot ropes and the Yaksas harness the horses to the chariot, while the powerful Raksasas push from behind.

49. Facing the chariot, the sixty thousand brahmana sages known as Valakhilyas travel in front and offer prayers to the almighty sun-god with Vedic mantras.

46. Thus, throughout the twelve months, the lord of the sun travels in all directions with his six types of associates, disseminating among the inhabitants of this universe purity of consciousness for both this life and the next.

45. All these personalities are the opulent expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, in the form of the sun-god. These deities take away all the sinful reactions of those who remember them each day at dawn and sunset.


The twelve Adityas are nothing but different forms of the Sun-God Surya. In different Puranas their names are given differently. Brahma once recounted to the sages the one hundred and eight sacred names of Surya. The Brahma Purana lists these names and we reproduce them in nine groups of twelve names each.

(1) Surya, Archana, Bhagavana, Tvashta, Pusha, Arka, Savita, Ravi, Gabhastimana, Aja, Kala, Mrityu.
(2) Dhata, Prabhakara, Prithivi, Jala, Teja, Akasha, Vayu, Parayana, Soma, Brihaspati, Shukra, Budha.
(3) Angaraka, Indra, Vivasvana, Diptamshu, Shuchi, Shouri,Shanaishvara, Brahma, Vishu, Rudra, Skanda, Vaishravana.
(4) Yama, Vaidyuta, Jathara, Agni, Aindhana, Tejohapti, Dharmadhvaja, Vedakarta, Vedanga, Vedavahana, Krita, Treta.
(5) Dvapara, Kali, Sarvasurashraya, Kala, Kashtha, Muhurta, Kshapa, Yama, Kshana, Samvatsara, Ashvattha, Kalachakra.
(6) Vibhavasu, Shashvata, Purusha, Yogi, Vyaktavyakta, Sanatana, Kaladhyaksha, Prajadhyaksha, Vishvakarma, Tamonuda, Varuna, Sagara.
(7) Amsha, Jimuta, Jivana, Ariha, Bhutashraya, Bhutapati, Sarvalokanamaskrita, Shrashta, Samvartaka, Vahni, Sarvadi, Alolupa.
(8) Anata, Kapila, Bhanu, Kamada, Sarvotamukha, Jaya, Vishala, Varada, Sarvabhutasevita, Mana, Suparna, Bhutadi.
(9) Shighraga, Pranadharana, Dhanvantari, Dhumaketu, Adideva, Aditinandana, Dvadashatma, Ravi, Daksha, Pita, Mata, Pitamaha.

"All these personalities are the opulent expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, in the form of the sun-god. These deities take away all the sinful reactions of those who remember them each day at dawn and sunset." (Srimad Bhagavatam 12.11.45)


The twelve Sun-gods (12 Adityas)

Surya Dhata
Surya Aryama
Surya Mitra
Surya Varuna
Surya Indra
Surya Vivasvan
Surya Tvashta
Surya Vishnu
Surya Amshuman
Surya Bhaga
Surya Pusha
Surya parjanya



The 12 Adityas and their Associates
(Srimad Bhagavatam 12.11.27-49)

Ruling Month
(1)
Sun-god
(2)
Sage
(3)
Yasha
(4)
Gandharva
(5)
Apsara
(6)
Raksha
(7)
Naga

March - April

Chaitra
1
Dhata
Pulastya
Rathakrt
Tumburu
Krtasthali
Heti
Vasuki

April - May

Vaishakha
2
Aryama
Pulaha
Athauja
Narada
Punjikasthali
Praheti
Kacchanira

May - June

Jyeshtha
3
Mitra
Atri
Rathasvana
Haha
Menaka
Pauruseya
Taksaka

June - July

Ashadha
4
Varuna
Vasistha
Citrasvana
Huhu
Rambha
Sahajanya
Sukra

July - August

Shravana
5
Indra
Angira
Srota
Visvavasu
Pramloca
Varya
Elapatra

Aug - Sept

Bhadrapada
6
Vivasvan
Bhrgu
Asarana
Ugrasena
Anumloca
Vyaghra
Sankhapala

Sept - Oct

Ashvina
7
Tvashtha
Jamadagni
Satajit
Dhrtarastra
Tilottama
Brahmapeta
Kambalasva

Oct - Nov

Kartika
8
Vishnu
Visvamitra
Satyajit
Suryavarca
Rambha
Makhapeta
Asvatara

Nov - Dec

Margashirsha
9
Amshuman
Kasyapa
Tarksya
Rtasena
Urvasi
Vidyucchatru
Mahasankha

Dec - Jan

Pausha
10
Bhaga
Ayur
Uma
Aristanemi
Purvacitti
Sphurja
Karkotaka

Jan - Feb

Magha
11
Pushya
Gautama
Suruci
Susena
Ghrtaci
Vata
Dhananjaya

Feb - March

Phalguna

12
Parjanya
Bharadvaja
Ritu
Visva
Senajit
Varca
Airavata

In each month of the year, it is a different aditya who shines. As Indra, Surya destroys the enemies of the gods. As Dhata, he creates living beings. As Parjanya, he showers down rain. As Tvashta, he lives in the trees and herbs. As Pusha, he makes foodgrains grow. As Aryama, he is in the wind. As Bhaga, he is in the body of all 0living beings. As Vivasvana, he is in fire and helps to cook food. As Vishnu, he destroys the enemies of the gods. As Amshumana, he is again in the wind. As Varuna, Surya is in the waters and as Mitra, he is in the moon and in the oceans.


The different Forms of the Sun-god

Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 12, Chapter 11, Text 27-49

27-28. Sri Saunaka said: Please describe to us, who have great faith in your words, the different sets of seven personal features and associates the sun-god exhibits during each month, along with their names and activities. The associates of the sun-god, who serve their lord, are personal expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Hari in His feature as the presiding deity of the sun.

29. Suta Gosvami said: The sun travels among all the planets and thus regulates their movements. It has been created by Lord Visnu, the Supreme Soul of all embodied beings, through His beginningless material energy.

30. The sun-god, being nondifferent from Lord Hari, is the one soul of all the worlds and their original creator. He is the source of all the ritualistic activities prescribed in the Vedas and has been given many names by the Vedic sages.

31. Being the source of the material energy, the Personality of Godhead Lord Hari in His expansion as the sun-god is described in nine aspects, O Saunaka: the time, the place, the endeavor, the performer, the instrument, the specific ritual, the scripture, the paraphernalia of worship and the result to be achieved.

32. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, manifesting His potency of time as the sun-god, travels about in each of the twelve months, beginning with Madhu, to regulate planetary motion within the universe. Traveling with the sun-god in each of the twelve months is a different set of six associates.

33. My dear sage, Dhata as the sun-god, Krtasthali as the Apsara, Heti as the Raksasa, Vasuki as the Naga, Rathakrt as the Yaksa, Pulastya as the sage and Tumburu as the Gandharva rule the month of Madhu.

34. Aryama as the sun-god, Pulaha as the sage, Athauja as the Yaksa, Praheti as the Raksasa, Punjikasthali as the Apsara, Narada as the Gandharva and Kacchanira as the Naga rule the month of Madhava.

35. Mitra as the sun-god, Atri as the sage, Pauruseya as the Raksasa, Taksaka as the Naga, Menaka as the Apsara, Haha as the Gandharva and Rathasvana as the Yaksa rule the month of Sukra.

36. Vasistha as the sage, Varuna as the sun-god, Rambha as the Apsara, Sahajanya as the Raksasa, Huhu as the Gandharva, Sukra as the Naga and Citrasvana as the Yaksa rule the month of Suci.

37. Indra as the sun-god, Visvavasu as the Gandharva, Srota as the Yaksa, Elapatra as the Naga, Angira as the sage, Pramloca as the Apsara and Varya as the Raksasa rule the month of Nabhas.

38. Vivasvan as the sun-god, Ugrasena as the Gandharva, Vyaghra as the Raksasa, Asarana as the Yaksa, Bhrgu as the sage, Anumloca as the Apsara and Sankhapala as the Naga rule the month of Nabhasya.

39. Pusha as the sun-god, Dhananjaya as the Naga, Vata as the Raksasa, Susena as the Gandharva, Suruci as the Yaksa, Ghrtaci as the Apsara and Gautama as the sage rule the month of Tapas.

40. Ritu as the Yaksa, Varca as the Raksasa, Bharadvaja as the sage, Parjanya as the sun-god, Senajit as the Apsara, Visva as the Gandharva and Airavata as the Naga rule the month known as Tapasya.

41. Amshu as the sun-god, Kasyapa as the sage, Tarksya as the Yaksa, Rtasena as the Gandharva, Urvasi as the Apsara, Vidyucchatru as the Raksasa and Mahasa“kha as the Naga rule the month of Sahas.

42. Bhaga as the sun-god, Sphurja as the Raksasa, Aristanemi as the Gandharva, Uma as the Yaksa, Ayur as the sage, Karkotaka as the Naga and Purvacitti as the Apsara rule the month of Pusya.

43. Tvashtha as the sun-god; Jamadagni, the son of Rcika, as the sage; Kambalasva as the Naga; Tilottama as the Apsara; Brahmapeta as the Raksasa; Satajit as the Yaksa; and Dhrtarastra as the Gandharva maintain the month of Isa.

44. Vishnu as the sun-god, Asvatara as the Naga, Rambha as the Apsara, Suryavarca as the Gandharva, Satyajit as the Yaksa, Visvamitra as the sage and Makhapeta as the Raksasa rule the month of Urja.

45. All these personalities are the opulent expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, in the form of the sun-god. These deities take away all the sinful reactions of those who remember them each day at dawn and sunset.

46. Thus, throughout the twelve months, the lord of the sun travels in all directions with his six types of associates, disseminating among the inhabitants of this universe purity of consciousness for both this life and the next.

47-48. While the sages glorify the sun-god with the hymns of the Sama, Rg and Yajur Vedas, which reveal his identity, the Gandharvas also sing his praises and the Apsaras dance before his chariot. The Nagas arrange the chariot ropes and the Yaksas harness the horses to the chariot, while the powerful Raksasas push from behind.

49. Facing the chariot, the sixty thousand brahmana sages known as Valakhilyas travel in front and offer prayers to the almighty sun-god with Vedic mantras.

 

The six Season
Julian Calendar
Lunar Month
Solar Months
Spring
Vasanta
March - April
Chaitra
Madhu
April - May
Vaishakha
Madhava
Summer
Grishma
May - June
Jyaishtha
Shukra
June - July
Ashadha
Suchi
Rainy
Varsha
July- August
Shravana
Nabhas
August - September
Bhadrapada
Nabhasya
Autumn
Sharat
September - October
Ashvina
Isha
October - November
Karttika
Urja
Winter / Cold
Hemanta
November - December
Margasirsha (Agrahayana)
Sahas
December - January
Pausha
Sahasya 
Dewy / Dews
Shishira
January - February 
Magha
Tapas
February - March
Phalguna
T apasya

 

The hundred and eight names (112) of Surya
From the Mahabharata Vana parva, Sec. III (10)

The Sun, which is the representation of the Supreme Lord Sri Krishna, is known by 108 names

These are the hundred and eight names of Surya of immeasurable energy, as told by the self-create (Brahma). These names where disclosed of old by Lord Brahma, the self created, to the illustrious Sakra, and from Sakra to Narada, and from Narada to Dhaumya, and from Dhaumya to the sons of Pritha, the Pandavas.

For the acquisition of prosperity, I bow down to thee, O Bhaskara, blazing like unto gold or fire, who is worshipped of the gods and the Pitris and the Yakshas, and who is adored by Asuras, Nisacharas, and Siddhas.

Dhaumya said to Yudhistira:

Surya, Aryaman, Bhaga, Twastri, Pusha, Arka, Savitri, Ravi, Gabhastimat, Aja, Kala, Mrityu, Dhatri, Prabhakara, Prithibi, Apa, Teja, Kha, Vayu, Soma, Vrihaspati, Sukra, Budha, Angaraka, Indra, Vivaswat, Diptanshu, Suchi, Sauri, Sanaichara, Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Skanda, Vaisravana, Yama, Vaidyutagni, Jatharagni, Aindhna, Tejasampati, Dharmadhwaja, Veda-karttri, Vedanga, Vedavahana, Krita, Treta, Dwapara, Kali, Kala, Kastha, Muhurtta, Kshapa, Yama, and Kshana; Samvatsara-kara, Aswattha, Kalachakra, Bibhavasu, Purusha, Saswata, Yogin, Vyaktavyakta, Sanatana, Kaladhyaksha, Prajadhyaksha, Viswakarma, Tamounda, Varuna, Sagara, Ansu, Jimuta, Jivana, Arihan, Bhutasraya, Bhutapati, Srastri, Samvartaka, Vanhi, Sarvadi, Alolupa, Ananta, Kapila, Bhanu, Kamada, Sarvatomukha, Jaya, Visala, Varada, Manas, Suparna, Bhutadi, Sighraga, Prandharana, Dhanwantari, Dhumaketu, Adideva, Aditisuta, Dwadasatman, Aravindaksha, Pitri, Matri, Pitamaha, Swarga-dwara, Prajadwara, Mokshadwara, Tripistapa, Dehakarti, Prasantatman, Viswatman, Viswatomukha, Characharatman, Sukhsmatman, Maitreya.

'Whoever with fixed attention recited this hymn at sunrise, obtaineth wife and offspring and riches and the memory of his former existence, and by reciting this hymn a person attaineth patience and memory. Let a man concentrating his mind, recite this hymn. By doing so, he shall be proofed against grief and forest-fire and ocean and every object of desire shall be his.'

'And a person, male or female, that recited this hymn every day in the two twilights (sunrise and sunset) hin mind concentrated with ascetic abstraction, obtained every boon he desired, however difficult it may be, that he ask for. If he is overtaken by danger, he is delivered from it; and if bound, he is freed from the bounds.'

The hundred and eight names (112) of Surya - Alphabetically

 Adideva  Diptanshu  Prabhakara  Surya
 Aditisuta  Dwadasatman  Prajadhyaksha  Swarga-dwara
 Aindhna  Dwapara  Prajadwara  Tamounda
 Aja  Gabhastimat  Prandharana  Teja
 Alolupa  Indra  Prasantatman  Tejasampati
 Ananta  Jatharagni  Prithibi  Treta
 Angaraka  Jaya  Purusha  Tripistapa
 Ansu  Jimuta  Pusha  Twastri
 Apa  Jivana  Ravi  Vaidyutagni
 Aravindaksha  Kala  Rudra  Vaisravana
 Arihan  Kala  Sagara  Vanhi
 Arka  Kalachakra  Samvartaka  Varada
 Aryaman  Kaladhyaksha  Samvatsara-kara  Varuna
 Aswattha  Kali  Sanaichara  Vayu
 Bhaga  Kamada  Sanatana  Veda-karttri
 Bhanu  Kapila  Sarvadi  Vedanga
 Bhutadi  Kastha  Sarvatomukha  Vedavahana
 Bhutapati  Kha  Saswata  Visala
 Bhutasraya  Krita  Sauri  Vishnu
 Bibhavasu  Kshapa  Savitri  Viswakarma
 Brahma  Maitreya.  Sighraga  Viswatman
 Budha  Manas  Skanda  Viswatomukha
 Characharatman  Matri  Soma  Vivaswat
 Dehakarti  Mokshadwara  Srastri  Vrihaspati
 Dhanwantari  Mrityu  Suchi  Vyaktavyakta
 Dharmadhwaja  Muhurtta  Sukhsmatman  Yama
 Dhatri  Pitamaha  Sukra  Kshana
 Dhumaketu  Pitri  Suparna  Yogin

 

The seven (7) Horses of the Sun's Chariot

The seven horses of the suns chariot

1. Gayatri, 2. Samvrihati, 3. Ushnik, 4. Jagati
5. Trishtubh, 6. Anushtubh, 7. Pankti

The chariot of Lord Surya is pulled by seven horses. Hence, he is sometimes referred to as Saptashva (Lord of Seven Horses).

 

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